The process of aging is the universal process which includes physiologic changes. These changes are caused by diseases or enviroment influence.

The aging process is considered a normal and physiologic process that occurs in all human beings and starts as son as we are born. It becomes more noticeable in our final years and restricts our adaptability and reaction time.
It isn't an standardized process, and it's different in each species, because each species has its own time limit. 

"The aging is an INDIVIDUAL PROCESS because it occur differently in each person"

  1. The skin is more fragile because it's less supple and it is not hydrated. For this reason, the skin has more risk of injuries, maceration and infections. In addition, the skin is more sensitive of the sun and chemical products. .
  2. The hair becomes grey and decrease amount and thickness of hair on head and body.
  3. Increased brittleness of nail.
An important nursing intervention is to prevent disorder skin, for example: preassure ulcers, liver spots, senile lentigo..

  1. Increased osteoporosis and increased curvature of spine, because bone calcium is decreased.
  2. Decreased muscle strength, because decreased fluid in intervertebral disks and decreased blood supply to muscles.
  3. Decreased movility and flexibility of ligaments and tendons.
An important nursing intervention is to decrease risk for falls and asses nutritional intake, especially food rich in calcium.

There is always some excepccion
  1. Decreased ability to humidify air resulting in drier mucous membranes, because body fluids are decreased.
  2. Decreased ability to trap debris and increased risk for respiratory infection.
  3. Decreased gas exchange and increased pooling of secretions.
  4. Decreased ability to breath diminished stregth of cough
An important nursing intervention is to assess breathing depth and effort respiratory, place the patient in a position to facilitate easy of respiration and detect signs and symptoms of respiratory infection.
In addition, nursing should encourage annual influenza vaccination.

  1. Decreased venous return.
  2. Increased dependent edema.
  3. Increased of orthostatic hypotension
  4. Increased varicosities and hemorrhoids.
  5. Increased risk of heart failure and heart mumurs.
  6. Decreased peripheral circulation.
The nursing assessment will be: assess apical and peripheral pulses, assess blood pressure lying, sitting and standing, assess activity tolerance and finally, instruct the patient in identifying symptoms related with fatigue and short of breath.

  1. Increased risk for vascular occlusion.
  2. Increased incidence of anemia.
  3. Decreased inmune response.
The nursing assessment will be: laboratory test (report abnormal findings) and assess nutritional intake for adequacy of protein, iron and vitamins (administer nutritional supplements as necessary).

  1. Increased risk for dehydration and constipation, because thirst perception is decreased.
  2. Increased incidence of heartburn, because muscle tone and sphincters are decreased.
  3. Decreased  digestion and absorption of nutrients, because gastric motility and peristalsis are decreased.
  4. Decreased ability to metabolize drugs leading to increases risk for toxicity, because liver size and enzyme production are decreased.
The nursing assessment will be: assess oral cavity oral and educate regarding of good oral hygiene, stress need for adequate fluid intake and dental referral as necessary.
In addition, an important nursing intervention is monitory weight changes and assess intake of nutrients and fluid. Finally, nursing assess bowel sounds and bowel elimination patterns.

  1. Kidneys are smaller than before.
  2. Decreased filtration rate with decreased in dug clearance, because number of functional nephrons is decreased.
  3. Decreased removal of body wastes and increased concentration of urine, because blood supply is decreased.
  4. Increased incidence of incontinence and the number of episodes of bedwetting.
  5. Increased risk of infection because prostate enlarges.
An important nursing intervention is to monitor for signs of drug toxicity, assess urinary frequency, palpate bladder after voiding  and determine whether bladder is emptying completly. Finally, nursing should assess frecuency and timing of episodes of incontinence 
  1. The brain and spinal cord lose weight.
  2. Decreased number of functional cortical neurons.
  3. Transmission of nerve impulse is more slow.
  4. Slowing of thoght, memory and thinking is a normal part of aging, but these changes are different in each person.
An important nursing intervention is to promote geriatric people to mental and physical exercise, because it can help the brain. For example: reading, doing pluzzles, stimulating conversation...
The brain stimulation promotes blood flow to brain and it helps reduce loss of brain cells.

  1. Vision: decreased focusing ability for near objects. This process is kown as presbyopia and it's a natural part of the aging process and it affect everyone.
  2. Hearing loss is one of the most common conditions affecting geriatric people.This is kown as presbycusis. 

I think that aging must be considered as one beautifull stage of life despite all these negatives health changes. I say that because these changes occur differently in each person and they should be accepted as normal process of aging.

The trick is that: People must add years of life, health for the life and life for the years

First, this phrase means that It's very important to celebrate a birthday every year and we must be proud for that because it's means that we are alive. Second, It's important that people are healhty and finally, the most important is to live everyday as if it were your last.


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