I think that to be patient with these persons is the most important, because they aren't aware of many things.
An important nursing intervention with this type of patients is ensuring the communication with them. The nurse should use the following resources:
- Ask yes/no questions whenever possible
- Observe nonverbal communication
- Use touch to communicate empathy
- Speak slowly using short, simple sentences
- Repeat, rephrase, and restate messages
- Decrease environmental distractions
- The patient may have problems to understand the facial expressions, for this reason, nurses should approach the patient always with a smile.
- Establish eye contact before starting communication
- As trying to capture the attention of the patient, nurses should avoid scare them. For this reason, the best form to capture de attention of the patient is touching gently his hand or arm
- Provide visual cues whenever possible
- Use pictures of familiar items
- Allow ample time for responses
- Explain basic communication techniques to family
- Consult with speech therapist regarding other communication techniques.
- Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors in or near the kitchen and in all bedrooms
- Emergency phone numbers and the person’s address near all phones
- Lock up or remove these potentially dangerous items from the home such as medicines, alcohol, cleaning and household products, poisonous plants, guns and other weapons, scissors,knives, power tools, machinery...
- Check all rooms for adequate lighting. Use nightlights in bathrooms, bedrooms, and hallways
- Put a glass-ceramic, use plastic plates, cup and cutlery.
- Install secure locks on all outside windows and doors, especially if the person is prone to wandering. Remove the locks on bathroom doors or dangerous rooms to prevent the person from accidentally locking himself or herself in.
- Keep the house free from clutter. Remove scatter rugs and anything else that might contribute to a fall.
- Each room must be marked with a easy picture or word.
- Paint the front door of the same color as the wall and always closed.
- Put a shower and anti-slip floor in the bathroom.
- Remove mirrors of bathroom or bedroom.
- Close the dangerous rooms (kitchen or bathroom).
- Regular exercise
- Healthy diet
- Mental stimulation
- Quality sleep
- Stress management
- An active social life
- Learn something new, study a foreign language, learn sign language, practice a musical instrument, read newspaper or a good book.
- Practice memorization
- Enjoy strategy games, puzzles, riddles or sudokus
- Follow the road less traveled because it's help to vary our habits regularly to create new brain pathways.